Mughals : Battle of Khanwah

Exact Match
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The success of Babur in the first battle of Panipat and the downfall of the Afghan ruler, Ibrahim Lodhi in Delhi inspired the Rajputs to rehabilitate their lost image by establishing their rule in northern India. The leader of the Rajput revivalism, Rana Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) had to proceed to Agra as per the terms of an agreement he had made with Babur, but he withheld his advance on the advice of his advisers. He instead occupied two hundred villages to the south of Agra and thus made his position strong in this area.

Sanga was in no mood of compromise with the newly established Mughal power in Delhi under Babur. Meanwhile, Mahmud Lodhi who had survived the first battle of Panipat came to the Rana along with his 10,000 soldiers and the Rana accepted him as an ally against Babur. With a view to defeat Babur, Rana Sanga called upon the dependent and friendly Rajput Chiefs to extend support. The confederate army under Rana Sanga was a mighty force and it also included 80,000 horses and 500 elephants. Among those who joined this grand alliance against Babur were the Afghan chiefs Hasan Khan Mewati and Mahmud Lodi. The Mughal soldiers were dismayed at the sight of such a vast army under Rana Sanga. To raise the morale of his dispirited soldiers, Babur delivered a stirring speech and inspired his soldiers to take a vow on the Quran. This had an instantaneous effect on his troops.

The hostilities broke out between the contending armies on 16 March, 1527 at 9 a.m. at Khanwah near Agra. To push back the Mughal troops on the right side, Rana Sanga ordered the left phalanx of his army to deliver the attack. The attack was so powerful on Tulguma, who was in command of the right phalanx of the Babur's army, that his troops started running away from the Battle field. Babur immediately sent Chintaimur to his rescue. He attacked the left phalanx of the Rajputs and the Mughal soldiers infiltrated the Rajput ranks to create confusion among them. Just now, Babur ordered his assistant Mustafa to open gun fire and advance the troops in the open field. The artillery did such a wonderful job that it proved a great morale booster for the Mughals.

In spite of the terrible bombardment by the Mughal artillery, the brave Rajputs struck back bringing terror in the heart of the Mughal soldiers. The Rajputs were in great excitement to gain a victory. Then at the suggestion of an ingenious Mughal general, Babur picked up the best of his cavalry and let it loose on the enemy. This device paid rich dividends to Babur.

The terrible bombardments by the Mughal cannons and a sudden charge by the cavalry told heavily on the Rajputs. Notwithstanding the deadly gun fire, the valiant soldiers of the Rana launched an attack on the right and left phalanxes of the Mughal army. This attack in the last moments was so powerful that the Mughals were driven back from their battle position to near the spot where Babur himself was standing. Ultimately, the Mughal artillery proved a curse for the death defying Rajputs. They could not hold against it for long and their resistance began to fizzle out. Taking advantage of the weakened position of the Rajput army, Babur ordered both the phalanxes of his army to launch a second offensive against the enemy. As a result, the Rajputs were put to rout. Babur gained a spectacular victory at Khanwah.

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