Humayun is often considered as the problem child of the Mughals. So loved by his father that he offered his life in exchange for his son when the latter was gravely ill. After the death of Babur in 1830, Humayun succeeded to an uneasy realm extending from Kabul and Kandahar to the borders of Bengal.
In 1534-35 Humayun took Malwa and Gujarat in a brilliant campaign but then 'took his pleasure' for a year in Agra in the meantime loosing both of them. This inactivity enabled the Afghan opposition to take shape and it now found a leader in the person of Sher Shah Shur, who had joined Babur in 1526 but now built up a power for himself in South Bihar.
Only when Sher Shah Shur moved against Bengal did Humayun stir. In 1540, after two resounding defeats in the hand of Sher Shah, he found himself fugitive. His brother Kamran closed Kabul and Punjab to him, using the opportunity which his brothers misfortune gave. Humayun escaped to Persia with much difficulty, where Shah Ismail gave him asylum. On the way, at Umarkot in Sind on 23 November 1542, his son Akbar was born.
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