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Among the regional languages, Malayalam cinema derived much of its strength from literature during the sixties. Malayalam cinema hit the head lines for the first time when Raim Kariat's Chemmeen (1965) won the President's Gold Medal. Towards the end of the decade, Mrinal Sen's Bhuvan Shome, signalled the beginning of the new wave in Indian Cinema.

The New Indian Cinema emerged as a reaction to the popular cinema's Other Worldiness. It is a cinema of social significance and artistic sincerity, presenting a modern, humanistic perspective more durable than the fantasy world of the popular cinema.

Satyajit Ray's classic Pather Panchali won international acclaim Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen were the founding fathers of the new cinema in India. Acclaimed as India's foremost director Satyajit Ray has made 30 feature films and five documentaries, tackling a wide range of rural, urban historical themes. His cinematography places him away from the inheritors of the neorealistic school, and yet his films are infused with an unusual humaneness.

Pather Panchali, ApurSansar, Charulata, Jalsaghar, Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne, Seemabadha, Jana Aranya, Ashani Sanket and Agantuk are some of his outstanding films. He was fortunate enough to present his films in almost all the leading film festivals of the world. The national and international awards won by Ray are numerous.

Ritwik Ghatak swooped on the Indian scene with new dynamism. His films constitute a record of the traumas of change from the desperation of the rootless and deprived refugees from East Bengal. (Meghe Dhaka Tara, Ajantrik, Komal Ghandhar, Subarnarekha ), Mrinal Sen is the ebullient one experimenting with neorealism as well as new wave and fantasy. His notable films are Bhuvan Sho-me, Chorus, Mrigaya, Ek Din Pratidin. Akaler Sandhane, Kharij & Khandahar. He has also won several national and international awards.

In Bombay, a new group of filmmakers emerged on the Hindi cinema. Notable among them are Basu Chatterji (Sara Akash, Rajinder Singh Bedi (Dastak), Mani Kaul (Uski Roti, Duvidha), Kumar Shahani {Maya Darpan), Avtar Kaul (27-Down), Basu Bhattacharya (Anubhav), M.S. Sathyu (Garam Hawa), Shyam Benegal (Ankur), and Kanthilal Rathod (Kanku).


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